Friday, September 23, 2016

chart Greeks 2000-150 B.C.

Who/WhatWhenWhereWhy (Cause)Significance (Result)

Minoans2000-1450origins at Knossos, Crete foundaries; Meditterranean, Agean,Black Sea shipping empireThe end of the Minoans correlates with the end of the Bronze Age resulting in the spread of Iron.
Mycenaeans1600-1100origins on the Peloponesse Peninsula of Greece (see map in the Minoan link)These early Greeks: took over Minoan trade routes, agressive expansionTrojan War: Mycenae and Troy over economic rivalry (trade & expansion). Victors: Mycenaeans.
AthenaniansAthens: continuiously inhabited for 5000 years (ca 3000 BC)(see map of Greco-Persian Wars)
Foundation for Democracy, science, medicine, philosopy, history, theater
Spartansapex 650-371primary, city-state of Lacedaemon in south-eastern Peloponnese. Spartan Army was instrumental in defeating the Persians.
Olympicsfirst recorded 776on the plains of Olymipia, Greecehonor the GodsMost important race was running. Every four years the city-states competed.
Homer751-651b. Smyrna, Turkey- d. Ios, Greece
Illiad, Odyssey, blind wandering singer of ballads (poems)
built foundation for democracy; first government to include all people; release poor from their debts/slavery
reformed constitution; "Father [founder] of Athenean Democracy"
Pisistratusr. 561-527ruled Athens
aided the poor; established the Panathenaic Festival (every 4yrs. contests in music, poetry, chariot racing,...)

Buit Accropolis temples; Height of Athenean democracy(460)
Greco-Persian Wars490-479
Victors: Greek-city states
Battle of Marathon490
First Persian InvasionGreece repelled at the Battle of Marathon; first marathon-runner sent to Athens to tell of the victory
Herodotus484-425Greek historian
wrote The Persian Wars, encouraged research in histories
Battle at Thermopylae480Pass of ThermopylaeSecond Persian invasion of Greeece;first battleGreek allies with 300 Spartas (with King Leonaidas). The Spartas...held the pass for three days, then were encircled, and cut down to a man. Victor: Persians
Battle at Salamis29 Sept. 480Naval BattleSecond Persian invasion of Greece; second battleVictor: Athens
Battle at Plataea479land battleSecond Persian Invasion of Greece; third battleVictor Sparta; Persians did not continue. Longlasting peace in Greece led to The Classical Greek Age
Golden Age of Athens/ Classical Greek Age479-404 (336)Athens, GreeceThe period of peace during which Greek advanced in philosopy, arts, medicine, histories, mathematics, and science.Ends with Athens defeat during the Peloponnesian War .
Socrates469-399Greek Philosopher
Sought truth & self-knowledge; "Socratic Method"= respond with a question; trial = choose exile or poison
Thucydides460-395Greek General and historian
wrote The Peloponnesian War; promoted unbiased writing of histories
Hippocratesca. 460-377

"Father of Modern Medicine"
Peloponnesian War431-404 resentment of Athenian domination, 2) disagreement on form of governmentVictor: Sparta and allies; Sparta became the leading influence in Greece until the Battle of Leuctra. The end of the Golden Age of Athens.
Diogenesca.400-ca. 325Greek Philosopher
Decline of Poleis400-323Greece
conincides with the decline of Athens following the Peloponnesian War

Plato399-347Greek Philosopherstudent of Socrates; teacher of Aristotlefavored rule of philosopher-king; worte The Republic, wrote The Apology explaining philosophy of Socrates
Aristotle384-322Greek PhilosopherStudent of Plato; Tutor of Alexander the Great"golden mean"=balance of moral extremees; Wrote Politics=favored strong, virtuous leader; studied strengths and weaknesses of governments.
Battle of LeuctraJuly 6, 0371Thebes vs. Sparta
Victor: Thebes; Sparta never fully recovered militarily
Philip II of Macedonia359-336 King who conquered GreeceWhile a hostage of the Greeks he learned their greatest military secret, the phalanx formation.
Menander [məˈnandər]ca.342-ca. 292Greek playwright
wrote 108 comedies; won Lenaia Festival 8 times.
Battle of Chaeronea2 August0338
Philip II defeats combined forces of Athens and ThebesSecured the Macedonian hegemony (politico–military dominance) over Greece and the Aegean
Alexander the Greatr.336-323Macedoniaconquered an empireHis empire stretched from Greece, Middle East, India, and Egypt; encouraged the spread of Greek culture throughout his empire.
Hellenistic Kingdoms337-31 Alexander's death; he had no royal heirs or appointed successorsEgypt, the Seleucid Empire, the Kingdom of Pergamon and Macedon (including Greece). Result: four full-scale wars followed by three kingdoms Egypt (w. southern Syria), Asian, and European.
Herophilusca. 335-ca. 280AlexandriaGreek PhyscianFather of Anatomy; All his works lost in the destruction of the Library at Alexandria 272 AD, first to measure the pulse; cures: drugs, dietetics, and gymnastics
Battle of Issus333southern Anatoliasecond battle of Alexander's conquest of AsiaMacedonians (Alexander) vs. Persians (Darius III). Victor: Macedonians
Alexander conquers Egypt332Egypt
Vicotor: Macedonia; Alexander crowned king; Founded city of Alexandria
Battle of Gaugamela (Arbela)1st October 331Plain of Gaugamela, near Arbela (present-day Irbīl in northern Iraq)
Decisive battle: Macedonnian - Hellenic League (Alexander) vs. Persian- Achaemenid (Darius III);Macedonias outnumbered, used a feint and flank; Darius Fled and his army paniced; Victor: Alexander of Macedonia
Persepolis destroyed330Parsa (`The City of the Persians’) in modern day Iran
Victor: Alexander the Great; The city was destroyed (cause still hypothesised)

Aristarchusca. 310-ca. 230

heliocentric solar system
Epicurusca. 306

Lysimachus Kingdom
western Asia Minor, Thrace and Macedonia kingdom built on sandexecuted his heir for treson
Seleuid Kingdom305-64Babylon & much of Alexander's territories in the Near East
by 1st century BC the Seleuid Kingdom had faded away
Ptolemaic Egypt305-30Egypt
Ptoley was adviser to Alexander, appointed governor of Egypt, then King
Euclidca. 300

Published Elements on mathematics
Archimedesca. 220

advances enginering: theory of displacement, boyancy, "Eureka!"
Rosetta Stone205/197
in Greek, demotic, and hierogyyphs
trigonometry, latitude, longitude, equinoxes
Maccabean Revolt166-164Judea Antiochus IV, Epiphanessought to destroy all who worshiped God; mothers & circumcised infants were executed, defiled the Temple...revolt against Seleucid Empire by the four sons of the priest Mattathias. The last son, Simon, negiated for the independence of Judah in exchange for support during the civil war over who would be the next king of the Seleucid Empire.

becomes dominant force in the Mediterranean

Compiled by Mrs. Julie Richey, M.A.revised 9/23/2016

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Greek Poleis, Hellenistic Kingdoms 337-31 B.C.: BC Timeline: Western Civilization I

BC Timeline: Western Civilization I
Greek Poleis, Hellenistic Kingdoms 337-31 B.C.
Compiled by Mrs.Julie Richey, M.A.

594 Solon appointed archeon of Athens Image result for solon of athens
    Sherman Dennis and Joyce Salisbury.  The West in the World: A History of Western Civilization
    Solon Put Athens on the Road to Democracy The Rule of Law in Dangerous Times        CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION: Bill of Rights in Action. Fall 2006 (22:3)

500 Roman republic founded 1
495-429 Pericles leads Athens, builds Acropolis temples 14
490-479 Persian Wars with Greece 14, 30
490  First Persian invasion of Greece repelled at the Battle of Marathon; first marathon 14,30
480-479 Second Persian Invasion repelled  14
           480 "Pass of Thermopylae" (Spartans betrayed; Persians won) 30, 31, 32, 34
    29 September 480 naval battle at Salamis (Athens won) 30, 33, 34
    479 land battle at Plataea (Spartans won) 30, 34
479-404 Golden Age of Athens 14, 35
479-336  Classical (Greece) Age  14, 35
469–399 Socrates 14, 37
     37 Nails, Debra, "Socrates", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),  URL = <>.    

460 Age of Pericles; height of Athenean democracy  
Ellis Elisabeth Gaynor and Anthony Esler. World History.    image of Pericles

ca. 460-377 Image result for hippocratesHippocrates “Father of Modern Medicine”  14, 36, 48


431–404 Peloponnesian War  (Athens vs. Sparta) 14, 34, 35,49

ca. 400 - ca. 325 Diogenes Image result for Diogenes advocates Cynicism 41, 50, 51  50 image of Diogenes

400 -323 Decline of the Poleis (democratically ruled city-states of Ancient Greece) 41

399 Death of  14, 37, 53, 54
    53 image of Socrates,  “The Test of Three”.
    54 Plato’s Republic;  explanation of Socratic Method.

5 July 371  Spartans were defeated by Thebes at the Battle of Leuctra


399-347 Plato flourishes 14, 39,
     Plato’s Republic;  explanation of Socratic Method.  



359-336  Philip II rules Macedonia Image result for Ancient Greek Battle Strategies
Hoplite phalanx formation image

ca. 342 - ca. 292 Life of playwright Menander
image with quote

       “Macedonia vs City States at the Battle in Chaeronea - Documentary” (8:29)


337-31  Hellenistic Kingdoms was the  absolute rule by kings after the death of Alexander until the rise of  Rome. 41

    Father of Anatomy (used dissection)

333 Battle of Issus
           “Alexander The Great The Battle Of Issus” (44:46) Narration: Brian Cox

332 Alexander conquers Egypt  41
    Established Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile River.
14 November 332 Alexander’s coronation as Pharaoh of Egypt

 1st October 331 Battle of Gaugamela (Arbela):  
       Alexander the Great of Macedon (victor)  vs. King Darius III of Persia. 41, 45

330 Alexander destroys Persepolis (Persian capital) (7:46) “Destroying of Persepolis - End of the Persian empire”

323 Alexander the Great  dies  
      Successor kingdoms established (Seleucid, Ptolemaic, Antigonid, ...)  41
      Hellenistic Age begins 42

322  Death of Aristotle 14, 40

Image result for aristarchus
ca. 310 - ca. 230  Life of Aristarchus, who posited heliocentric universe
(sun at center with other bodies revolving around the sun)

305-64 Seleucid Kingdom  (Babylon and much of Alexander’s territories in the near east.)

305-30 Ptolemaic Egypt  

ca. 300 Euclid published Elements on mathematics.  Image result for Who Was Herophilus  image

264-146 Punic Wars (series of three wars between Rome and Carthage)

ca. 220 Archimedes advances engineering.

205 Rosetta Stone records the coronation of Ptolemy V in Greek, demotic, and hieroglyphic scripts.  3
197 Rosetta Stone

190-120 Hipparchus of Nicaea (trigonometry, latitude, longitude, equinoxes)

166-164 Maccabean Revolt

131 Rome becomes the dominant civilization in the Mediterranean 42

Greek Poleis, Hellenistic Kingdoms                                
    41 Sherman Dennis and Joyce Salisbury.  The West in the World: A History of Western Civilization 5th ed. New York: NY: McGraw Hill Education  ISBN: 978-0-07-340703-6  pp.74-101

    42 Ellis Elisabeth Gaynor and Anthony Esler. World History.  Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.  2009.  ISBN:978-0-13-365191-1  Note, these flashcards cover a longer period than this timeline.